Authors who were LEGS lab members at the time of publication (or the study completion) are bolded.


Boysen, K. E., Perkins, S. L., Hunjun, S., Oliver, P., Gardner, M.G., Balasubramaniam, S. and Melville, J. (2022). Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of haemosporidian and hemogregarine parasites in Australian lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 167, 107358.

Norval, G., R. D. Sharrad, and M. G. Gardner. (2022). A mammal tick with a taste for lizard blood: parasitism by the kangaroo soft tick, (Ornithodoros gurneyi) on sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa). Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 13:101859.


Payne, E., Sinn, D. L.,  Spiegel, O., Leu, S. T., Gardner, M. G., Godfrey, S. S., Wohlfeil, C. and Sih, A. (2021). Consistent after all: behavioural repeatability in a long-lived lizard across a 6-year field study.
Animal Behaviour, 174 pp. 263-277.

Norval, G., Sharrad, R. D., Ross, K. E., Gardner, M.G (2021). An instance of parasitism on a human by a nymph of the kangaroo soft tick, Ornithodoros gurneyi Warburton, 1926 (Acari: Argasidae) in South Australia. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 12(2)101632.

Hamilton, K., Goulet, C.T., Drummond, E.M., Senior, A.F., Schroder, M., Gardner, M.G., While, G.M. and Chapple, D.G. (2021), Decline in lizard species diversity, abundance and ectoparasite load across an elevational gradient in the Australian alps. Austral Ecology, 46: 8-19.

Norval, G., Bursey, C. R., Goldberg, S. R., Sharrad, R. D., Ross, K. E. and Gardner, M. G. (2021). New host and locality records for gastrointestinal helminths of five reptile species from the Mid North region of South Australia, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 145:1, 45-59, DOI: 10.1080/03721426.2021.1913539

Daniell, T. L., Hutchinson, M. N., Ainsley, P. and Gardner, M. G. (2021). Recognition of reptile predator scent is innate in an endangered lizard species. Australian Journal of Zoology 68, 76-84.


Barr, J.I., Somaweera, R., Godfrey, S.S., Gardner, M.G. and Bateman, P.W. (2020), When one tail isn’t enough: abnormal caudal regeneration in lepidosaurs and its potential ecological impacts. Biol Rev, 95: 1479-1496.

Colombelli-Négrel, D., Slender, A., Bradford, T.,  Bertozzi T., Graf S. S. and Gardner M. G. (2020) Subtle genetic clustering among South Australian colonies of little penguins (Eudyptula minor). Conservation Genetics 21, 747–756.

Thompson, S.A., Pearson, S.K., While, G.M., Chapple, D.G. and Gardner, M.G. (2020), Scat on the doorstep: Refuge choice in a group-living lizard is influenced by the presence of scat piles. Austral Ecology, 45: 426-434.

Wohlfeil, C.K., Godfrey, S.S., Leu, S.T., Clayton, J. and Gardner, M.G. (2020), Spatial proximity and asynchronous refuge sharing networks both explain patterns of tick genetic relatedness among lizards, but in different years. Austral Ecology, 45: 493-501.

Brown, A., Wooster, E., Norval, G., Gardner, M.G. and Ueland, M. (2020), The attempted predation of a sand goanna (Varanus gouldii) by a juvenile red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Austral Ecology, 45: 1025-1028.

Norval, G. and Gardner, M.G. (2020), The natural history of the sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa (Gray, 1825) – Insight from chance observations and long-term research on a common Australian skink species. Austral Ecology, 45: 410-417.

Staines, M., Bradford, T., Graves, S.R., Bull, S. and Gardner, M.G. (2020), Proposing a new hypothesis: Rickettsia spp. as a mechanism maintaining parapatry between two Australian reptile tick species. Austral Ecology, 45: 488-492.

Daniell, T.L., Baring, R., Hutchinson, M.N., Ainsley, P. and Gardner, M.G. (2020), Translocation for conservation: Neonates are less suitable than adults. Austral Ecology, 45: 468-477.

Pearson, S.K., Johnston, G.R., Bull, C.M., Fenner, A.L. and Gardner, M.G. (2020), Fine-scale genetic structuring in a group-living lizard, the gidgee skink (Egernia stokesii). Austral Ecology, 45: 435-443.


Hacking, J., Bradford, T., Pierce, K. and Gardner M. G. (2019). De novo genotyping of the major histocompatibility complex in an Australian dragon lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 143:1, 97-117, DOI: 10.1080/03721426.2018.1542259

Bower, D.S., Brannelly, L.A., McDonald, C.A., Webb, R., Greenspan, S., Vickers, M., et al. (2019). A review of the role of parasites in the ecology of reptiles and amphibians. Austral Ecology, 44: 433-448.

Ansari, M. H., Cooper, S. J., Schwarz, M. P., Ebrahimi, M., Dolman, G., Reinberger, L., … & Gardner, M. G. (2019). Plio-Pleistocene diversification and biogeographic barriers in southern Australia reflected in the phylogeography of a widespread and common lizard species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 133, 107-119.

Treilibs, C.E., Pavey, C.M., Gardner, M.G., Hojat Ansari, T. and Bull, M.M. (2019). Spatial dynamics and burrow occupancy in a desert floodplain specialist, Liopholis slateri. Journal of Arid Environments, 167 8-17.

Norval, G., Ross, K.E., Sharrad, R.D. and Gardner, M.G. (2019). Taking stock: A review of the known parasites of the sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa (Gray, 1825), a common lizard endemic to Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 143(2) 216-234. DOI: 10.1080/03721426.2019.1595946


Hacking, J.D., Stuart-Fox, D., Godfrey, S.S. and Gardner, M.G. 2018. Specific MHC class I supertype associated with parasite infection and color morph in a wild lizard population. Ecology and Evolution, 8(19) pp. 9920 – 9933.

Lowe, A.J., Breed, M.F., Caron, H., Colpaert, N., Dick, C., Finegan, B., Gardner, M., Gheysen, G., Gribel, R., Harris, J.B.C., Kremer, A., Lemes, M.R., Margis, R., Navarro, C.M., Salgueiro, F., Villalobos-Barrantes, H.M. and Cavers, S. 2018. Standardized genetic diversity-life history correlates for improved genetic resource management of Neotropical trees. Diversity and Distributions, 24(6) pp. 730-741.

Matthews, Genevieve, Goulet, Celine T., Delhey, Kaspar, Atkins, Zak S., While, Geoffrey M., Gardner, Michael G. and Chapple, David G. 2018. Avian predation intensity as a driver of clinal variation in colour morph frequency. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87(6) pp. 1667-1684.

Norval, G., Clayton, J.L., Sharrad, R.D. and Gardner, M.G. (2018). Notes on the Stomach Contents of a Juvenile Sleepy Lizard, Tiliqua rugosa (Gray 1825), Killed by an Eastern Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril 1854) in South Australia. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians, 25(3) pp. 200-203.

Dew RM, Stevens MI and Schwarz MP (2018) Taxonomy of the Australian allodapine bee genus Exoneurella (Apidae: Xylocopinae: Allodapini) and description of a new Exoneurella species.  Insect Systematics and Diversity.  doi: 10.1093/isd/ixx013

Silva D, Dew RM, Stevens MI and Schwarz MP (2018) No deaths in the desert: predicted responses of an arid-adapted bee and its two nesting trees suggest resilience in the face of warming climates. Insect Conservation and Diversity. doi: 10.1111/icad.12318

Groutsch J, Miller N. Tuiwawa M, Hayes S. Stevens MI and Schwarz MP (2018) Not all exotic pollinator introductions are bad: an introduced buzz-pollinating bee in Fiji indicates little potential for enhancing the spread of weeds.  Austral Entomologydoi: 10.1111/aen.12346

Crichton A, Francis N, O’Doherty S, Tuiwawa M, Hayes SE, Stevens MI, and Schwarz MP (2018) Fiji has low endemic bee diversity and its only lowland species has a very wide host range: support for the pollinator super-generalist hypothesis in island biogeography. Pacific Conservation Biology.

Parslow B, Stevens MI and Schwarz MP (2018) First record of Gasteruption (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae) from Fiji with the description of a new species. Zootaxa

Grieve A, Barnden B, Howell RM, Kanishka AM, Stevens MI, Schwarz MP and Parslow BA (2018) Reproductive ethology of Pseudofoenus extraneus, a Fijian predator-inquiline wasp (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae: Hyptiogastrinae),. Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia

Pearson, S.K., Bull, C.M. and Gardner, M.G., 2018. Selection outweighs drift at a fine scale: Lack of MHC differentiation within a family living lizard across geographically close but disconnected rocky outcrops. Molecular ecology27(9), pp.2204-2214.

Norval, G., and Gardner, M. 2018. Long-distance lizards. iHerp 7: 58–60.

Norval, G., and Gardner, M.G. 2018. Predation by an eastern brownsnake, Pseudonaja textilis (Duméril, Bibron, & Duméril 1854), on a mallee black-backed snake, Parasuta nigriceps (Günther 1863). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians. 25(2): 134–136.

Hacking, J., Stuart-Fox, D. and Gardner, M., 2018. Very low rate of multiple paternity detected in clutches of a wild agamid lizard. Australian Journal of Zoology65(5), pp.328-334.

Dew, R., Tierney, S., Gardner, M. and Schwarz, M., 2018. Casteless behaviour in social groups of the bee Exoneurella eremophila. Apidologie49(2), pp.265-275.

Bradford, T., Pickett, M., Donnellan, S., Gardner, M.G. and Schofield, J., 2018. Conservation genomics of an endangered subspecies of Southern Emu-Wren, Stipiturus malachurus (Passeriformes: Maluridae). Emu-Austral Ornithology, pp.1-11.

Crichton, A., Francis, N., Doherty, S., Tuiwawa, M., Hayes, S., Stevens, M., et al. (2018). Low endemic bee diversity and very wide host range in lowland Fiji: support for the pollinator super-generalist hypothesis in island biogeography. Pacific Conservation Biology, in press.

Dew, R.M., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2018). Taxonomy of the Australian Allodapine Bee Genus Exoneurella (Apidae: Xylocopinae: Allodapini) and Description of a New Exoneurella Species. Insects Systematics and Diversity, 2(1) pp. 1-12.

Grieve, A.C., Barnden, B.L., Howell, R.M., Kanishka, A., Stevens, M.I., Schwarz, M.P., et al. (2018). Reproductive ethology of the Fijian predator- inquiline wasp Pseudofoenus extraneus (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae: Hyptiogastrinae) Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, in press.

Groutsch, J., Miller, N., Tuiwawa, M., Hayes, S., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2018). Not all exotic pollinator introductions are bad: an introduced buzz-pollinating bee Amegilla pulchra (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Fiji indicates little potential for enhancing the spread of weeds. Austral Entomology

Parslow, B.A., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2018). First record of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae) from Fiji with the description of a new species. Zootaxa, 4407(1) pp. 111-116.

Silva, D.P., Dew, R.M., Vilela, B., Stevens, M.I. and Schwarz, M.P. (2018). No deaths in the desert: predicted responses of an arid-adapted bee and its two nesting trees suggest resilience in the face of warming climates. Insect conservation and diversity,

Slender, A. L., Louter, M., Gardner, M. G., and Kleindorfer, S. 2018. Thick-billed grasswren (Amytornis modestus) songs differ across subspecies and elicit different subspecific behavioural responses. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia DOI: 10.1080/03721426.2018.1483185, 1-17.

Slender, A.L., Louter, M., Gardner, M.G., Kleindorfer, S. (2018) Plant community predicts the distribution and occurrence of thick-billed grasswren subspecies (Amytornis modestus) in a region of parapatry. Australian Journal of Zoology. 65(4), 273-282.

Hacking, J., Bertozzi, T., Mousalli, A., Bradford, T. and Gardner, M., 2018. Characterisation of major histocompatibility complex class I transcripts in an Australian dragon lizard. Developmental & Comparative Immunology. 84, 164-171.

Bradford, T., Pickett, M., Donnellan, S., Gardner, M.G. and Schofield, J., 2018. Conservation genomics of an endangered subspecies of Southern Emu-Wren, Stipiturus malachurus (Passeriformes: Maluridae). Emu-Austral Ornithology, pp.1-11.


Slender, A. L., Louter, M., Gardner, M. G., and Kleindorfer, S. 2017. Patterns of morphological and mitochondrial diversity in parapatric subspecies of the Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis modestus). Emu – Austral Ornithology 117(3), 264-275.

Godfrey, S.S. and Gardner, M.G., 2017. Lizards, ticks and contributions to Australian parasitology: C. Michael Bull (1947–2016). International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 6(3), pp.295-298.

Gardner, M.G., Ansari, M.H., Treilibs, C.E., Johnston, A., Pavey, C.R. and Bull, C.M., 2017. Isolation and characterisation of microsatellites for the endangered Slater’s skink, Liopholis slateri (Squamata: Scincidae), via next-generation sequencing. Australian Journal of Zoology, 65(3), pp.200-202.

Slender, A. L., Louter, M., Gardner, M.G., Kleindorfer, S. (2017) Patterns of morphological and mitochondrial diversity in parapatric subspecies of the Thick-billed Grasswren (Amytornis modestus). Emu. Accepted 29th March 2017.

Roitman, R., Gardner, M.G., New, T.R., Nguyen, T., Roycroft, E.J., Sunnucks P., Yen, A.L, Harrisson K.A. (2017) Assessing the scope for genetic rescue of an endangered butterfly: the case of the Eltham copper. Insect Conservation and Diversity. Accepted 3rd April 17.

Clark, J.A., Brown, C., Gillings, M.R., Gardner, M.G., Williamson, J.E., Izzo, C., Day, J. (2017) Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Port Jackson Shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni (Meyer, 1793) Marine Biodiversity Accepted 20th July 2017.

Whiley, H., Gardner, M.G. and Ross, K., 2017. A review of Salmonella and squamates (lizards, snakes and amphisbians): implications for public health. Pathogens, 6(3), p.38.

Dormontt, E.E., Prentis, P.J., Gardner, M.G. and Lowe, A.J., 2017. Occasional hybridization between a native and invasive Senecio species in Australia is unlikely to contribute to invasive success. PeerJ, 5, p.e3630.

Dew, R.M., Tierney, S.M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2017). Lack of ovarian skew in an allodapine bee and the evolution of casteless social behaviour. Ethology Ecology and Evolution. In press.

Staines, M., Vo, C., Puiu, N.A., Hayes, S., Tuiwawa, M., Stevens, M., et al. (2017). Pollen larceny of the tropical weed Solanum torvum by a Fijian endemic halictine bee with implications for the spread of plants with specialized pollinator requirements. Journal of Tropical Ecology. In press.

Kayaalp, P., Stevens, M.I. and Schwarz, M.P. (2017). ‘Back to Africa’: increased taxon sampling confirms a problematic Australia-to-Africa bee dispersal event in the Eocene. Systematic Entomology. In press.

Bousjein, N.S., Staines, M., Vo, C., Puiu, N., da Silva, C.R., Harrington, J., Wilkinson, S., Pratt, K. and Schwarz, M.P., 2017. Sex Ratios in a Socially Parasitic Bee and Implications for Host-Parasite Interactions. Journal of Insect Behavior, 30(1), pp.130-137.

Bull, C Michael, Michael G Gardner, Andrew Sih, Orr Spiegel, Stephanie S Godfrey, and Stephan T Leu. 2017. ‘Chapter One-Why Is Social Behavior Rare in Reptiles? Lessons From Sleepy Lizards’, Advances in the Study of Behavior, 49: 1-26.

Peck, S., Gardner, M.G., Seddon, J.M. and Baxter, G., 2017. Life-history characteristics of the yakka skink, Egernia rugosa, indicate long-term social structure. Australian Journal of Zoology, 64(5), pp.335-343.

Botterill-James, T., Sillince, J., Uller, T., Chapple, D.G., Gardner, M.G., Wapstra, E. and While, G.M., 2017. Experimental manipulation suggests effect of polyandry but not mate familiarity on within-pair aggression in the social skink, Liopholis whitii. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71(4), p.71.

Puschendorf, R., Todd, E.V. and Gardner, M.G., 2017. Characterisation of microsatellites for Litoria nannotis (Amphibia: Hylidae), an endangered waterfall frog endemic to the Australian Wet Tropics. Australian Journal of Zoology. In press. 

Bull, C.M., Gardner, M.G., Sih, A., Spiegel, O., Godfrey, S.S. and Leu, S.T., 2017. Why is social behavior rare in reptiles? Lessons from sleepy lizards. Advances in the Study of Behavior. In press

Halliwell, B., Uller, T., Chapple, D.G., Gardner, M.G., Wapstra, E. and While, G.M., 2017. Habitat saturation promotes delayed dispersal in a social reptile. Behavioral Ecology, p.arw181.

Pearson, S.K., Bull, C.M. and Gardner, M.G., 2017. Egernia stokesii (gidgee skink) MHC I positively selected sites lack concordance with HLA peptide binding regions. Immunogenetics, 69(1), pp.49-61.

Lukehurst, S.S., Dias, P.J., Huhn, M., Madduppa, H.H., Lee, S.S., Teo, S., Gardner, M.G. and McDonald, J.I., 2017. Isolation and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Asian green mussel Perna viridis (Mollusca, Mytilidae). Management, 8(1), pp.85-88.


Pearson, S.K., Godfrey, S.S., Bull, C.M. and Gardner, M.G., 2016. Larger lizards live longer in the group-living Egernia stokesii. Australian Journal of Zoology, 64(3), pp.182-191

S. K. Pearson, T. M. Bradford, T. H. Ansari, C. M. Bull, and M. G. Gardner (2016). MHC genotyping from next-generation sequencing: detailed methodology for the gidgee skink, Egernia stokesii. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 140 (2). pp.244-262.

Groom SGC, Stevens MI, Ramage T & Schwarz MP (2016) Origins and implications of apid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in French Polynesia. Entomological Science. 20 (1). pp.65-75

da Silva C, Stevens MI and Schwarz MP (2016) Social biology of Braunsapis puangensis (Apidae: Xylocopinae: Allodapini). Insectes Sociaux. In press

Dew, R.M., Rehan, S.M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2016). Biogeography and demography of an Australian native bee Ceratina australensis (Hymenoptera, Apidae) since the last glacial maximum. JOURNAL OF HYMENOPTERA RESEARCH, 49 pp. 25-41.

Dew, R.M., Tierney, S.M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2016). Social evolution and casteless societies: needs for new terminology and a new evolutionary focus. Insectes Sociaux, 63(1) pp. 5-14.

Bousjein, N., Gardner, M.G. and Schwarz, M.P. (2016). Small effective population sizes of bee social parasites compared to their hosts raise important questions for evolutionary arms race. Journal of Zoology

Smith, A., Landguth, E.L., Bull, C.M., Banks, S.C., Gardner, M.G. and Driscoll, D.A. (2016). Dispersal responses override density effects on genetic diversity during post-disturbance succession. Proceedings of The Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 283(1827) pp. Art: 20152934.

Whiley, H.L., Custance, G., Graves, S., Stenos, J., Taylor, M.J., Ross, K.E., et al. (2016). Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia. Pathogens, 5(2) pp. Art: 41.

Silva, D.P., Groom, S.V., da Silva, C.R., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2016). Potential pollination maintenance by an exotic allodapine bee under climate change scenarios in the Indo-Pacific region. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY,

da Silva, C.R., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2016). Casteless sociality in an allodapine bee and evolutionary losses of social hierarchies. Insectes Sociaux, 63(1) pp. 67-78.


Breed, M., Ottewell, K., Gardner, M.G., Marklund, M., Stead, M., Harris, J., et al. (2015). Mating system and early viability resistance to habitat fragmentation in a bird-pollinated eucalypt. Heredity

Gardner, M.G., Pearson, S.K., Johnston, G.R. and Schwarz, M.P. (2015). Group living in squamate reptiles: a review of evidence for stable aggregations. BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

Hojat Ansari Komachali, T.M., Bertozzi, T., Miller, R. and Gardner, M.G. (2015). MHC in a monogamous lizard – characterization of Class I MHC genes in the Australian skink (Tiliqua rugosa) Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 53 pp. 320-327.

Groom, S., Tuiwawa, M., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2015). Recent introduction of an allodapine bee into Fiji: a new model system for understanding biological invasions by pollinators. Insect Science, 22(4) pp. 532-540. 

Rehan, S. and Schwarz, M.P. (2015). A few steps forward and no steps back: long-distance dispersal patterns in small carpenter bees suggest major barriers to back-dispersal. Journal of Biogeography

da Silva, C.R., Groom, S.V., Stevens, M. and Schwarz, M.P. (2015). Current status of the introduced allodapine bee Braunsapis puangensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Fiji. Austral Entomology, 55(1) pp. 43-48.

Hopley, T., Broadhurst, L., Gardner, M.G. (2015) Isolation via 454 sequencing and characterisation of microsatellites for Acacia montana (Fabaceae), Mallee wattle: an endemic shrub from southeastern Australia. Conservation Genetics Resources, 7, 171-172

 Durrant H.M.S., Burridge, C.P., Gardner, M.G., (2015) Isolation via next generation sequencing of microsatellites from the Tasmanian macroalgae Lessonia corrugata (Lessoniaceae). Applications in Plant Sciences 3 (7) 1500042

 Moir, M.L., Hitchen, Y., Gardner, M.G., Coates, D.J., Kennington, W.J., (2015) Isolation and characterization of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the plant-lice Trioza barrettae (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Australian Journal of Zoology 63, 201-203


Groom, SVC, Ngo, HT, Rehan, SM, Skelton, P, Stevens, MI, Schwarz, MP (2014) Multiple recent introductions of apid bees into Pacific archipelagos signify potentially large consequences for both agriculture and indigenous ecosystems.Invasion Biology  

Groom SVG, Stevens MI, and Schwarz MP (2014) Parallel responses of bees to past climate change in three isolated archipelagos of the southwestern Pacific. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 281, 

Groom, SVC, Tuiwawa, M, Stevens, MI, Schwarz, MP (2014) Recent introduction of an allodapine bee into Fiji: a new model system for understanding biological invasions by pollinators. Insect Science.

Groom SVC, Stevens MI and Schwarz MP (2014) Recipe for disruption: multiple recent arrivals of megachilid bees in Pacific archipelagos. Journal of Insect Conservation.

Rehan SM, Richards MH, Adams M, & Schwarz MP (2014) The costs and benefits of sociality in a facultatively social bee. Animal Behaviour 97: 77-85. 

Dew RM & Schwarz MP (2014) Distribution of the native South Australian bee Exoneurella tridentata in Western Myall (Acacia papyrocarpa) woodlands. South Australian Naturalist

Dew RM, Gardner MG, and Schwarz MP (2014) The problems of a priori categorization of agonism and cooperation: circle tube interactions in two allodapine bees. Journal of Ethology

Wadley, J.J., Austin, J.J., Gardner, M.G. Fordham, D.A. (2014) Fifteen microsatellite loci for use in non-invasive sampling studies of antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus). Australian Journal of Zoology 61: 399-401.

Kennington, J.W., Guildea, C., Lukehurst, S.S., Hitchen, Y., Gardner, M.G., Duffy, R., Dias, P.J., Ledger, J., Snow, M. (2014) Isolation and characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the smooth Cherax cainii and hairy marron C. tenuimanus (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Conservation Genetics Resources, 6-2. 337-339.

Elliott, C.P., Enright, N., Allcock, R., Gardner, M.G., Anthony, J., Krauss, S.L. (2014) Microsatellite discovery: Comparing PGM (Ion Torrent) semi-conductor sequencing and 454/FLX pyro-sequencing. Molecular Ecology Resources 14, 554-568 

Baldwin, H., Vallo, P., Gardner, M., Drosten, C., Tschapka, M., and Stow, A. (2014) Isolation and characterization of 11 novel microsatellite loci in a West African leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros aff. ruber. BMC Research Notes 7(1), 607.

Schofield, J.A., Gardner, M.G., Fenner, A., Bull, C.M. (2014) Promiscuous mating in the endangered Australian lizard Tiliqua adelaidensis: a potential windfall for its conservation. Conservation Genetics 15: 177-185

Collins, T.E., Ottens, R., Ballantyne, K.N., Nagle, N., Henry, J., Taylor, D., Gardner, M.G., Fitch, A.J., Goodman, A., van Oorschot, R.A.H., Mitchell, R.J., Linacre, A. (2014) Characterisation of novel and rare Y-chromosome short tandem repeat alleles in self-declared South Australian Aboriginal database. Int J Legal Med 128: 27-31.

Momigliano, P., Robbins, W.D., Gardner, M.G. Stow, A. (2014) Characterisation of 15 novel microsatellite loci for the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). Conservation Genetic Resources 1-3.

Smith, A.L., Bull, C.M., Gardner, M.G. Driscoll, D.A. (2014) Life history influences how fire affects genetic diversity in two lizard species. Molecular Ecology 23 (10), 2428-2441

Naughton, K., O’Hara, T.D., Appleton, B.R., Gardner, M.G. (2014) Sympatric cryptic species in the crinoid genus Cenolia (Echinodermata: Crinoidea: Comasteridae) delineated by sequence and microsatellite markers Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 78, September 2014: 160-171

Austin, J.J., Olivier, L., Brown, W.E., Gardner, M.G., Burridge, C.P., (2014) Twenty microsatellite loci for population and conservation genetic studies of the wedge-tailed eagle Aquila audax. Australian Journal of Zoology 62 (3), 235-237

Levy, E., Byrne, M., Coates, D.J., van Leeuwen, S.J., McArthur, S., Macdonald, B., Gardner, M.G. (2014) Isolation via 454 sequencing, and characterisation of microsatellite markers for the Pilbara endemic Acacia atkinsiana (Fabaceae) Conservation Genetic Resources 6, 585-587

Hypsa, V., Dvorakova, N., Mikulicek, P., Jandzik, D., Gardner, M.G., Javanbakht, H., Tiar, G. Siroky, P. (2014) Hemolivia and Hepatozoon: haemogregarines with tangled evolutionary relationships. Protist. Vol. 165, 688–700

Godfrey, S.S., Anasri, T.H., Gardner, M.G., Bull, C.M. (2014) Low genetic relatedness among linked individuals in the social network of an Australian lizard. Animal Behaviour. 97, 35-43

Dormontt, E.E. Gardner, M.G., Breed, M.F., Rodger, J.G., Prentis, P.J., Lowe, A. J., (2014) Genetic bottlenecks in time and space: Reconstructing invasions from contemporary and historical collections PloSOne.

Ansari T.H., Hacking, J., Bertozzi, T., Cooper, S.J.B., Gardner, M.G. (2014) Anonymous nuclear markers for the Australian skink Sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa). Australian Journal of Zoology 62, 515–518

Pearson, S.K.,Tobe, S.S., Fusco, D.A., Bull, C.M., Gardner, M.G. (2014) Piles of scats for piles of DNA: Deriving DNA of lizards from their faeces. Australian Journal of Zoology 62, 507–514


Kayaalp P, Schwarz MP & Stevens MI (2013) Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66:668-678

Groom, SVG, Steven MI & Schwarz MP (2013) Diversification of Fijian halictine bees: insights into a recent island radiation.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.  

Smith JA, Chenoweth L, Tierney SM & Schwarz MP (2013) Repeated origins of social parasitism in allodapine bees: sympatric speciation not implicated despite Emery’s Rule. J. Linn. Soc.

Davies OK, Groom SVG, Ngo HT, Stevens MI, Schwarz MP (2013) Diversity and Origins of Fijian Leaf-cutter Bees (Megachilidae). Pacific Science. 67(4)

Rehan SM, Leys R, & Schwarz MP (2013) First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76683.

Breed M.F., Ottewell K.M., Gardner M.G., Marklund M.H.K., Michael G. Stead M.G., Harris J.B.C., Lowe A.J. (2013).Mating patterns and pollinator mobility are critical traits in forest fragmentation genetics. Heredity 1-7.

Tapper, S.-L., Byrne, M., Gardner M.G. (2013) Characterisation of microsatellite markers for the granite endemic Kunzea pulchella (Lindl.) A. S. George (Myrtaceae) identified using next generation sequencing. Conservation Genetics Resources. 5: 129-131

van der Meer, H., Gardner, M.G., Berumen, M., Hobbs, J.P., van Herwerden, L., (2013) Identification of seventeen microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the endemic wrasse Coris bulbifrons. Conservation Genetics Resources. 5: 363-366

Wei, N., Dick, C.W., Lowe, A.J., Gardner G. (2013) Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Neotropical nutmeg tree, Virola sebifera (Myristicaceae) derived from shotgun 454 pyrosequencing Applications in Plant Sciences 1(4): 1200295

Nevill, P., Bradbury, D., Jørgensen, T., Krauss, S., Samaraweera, S., Gardner G. (2013). Microsatellite primers identified by 454 sequencing in the riparian and floodplain tree species Eucalyptus victrix Myrtaceae. Applications in Plant Sciences 1(5): 1200402

Nevill, P., Williams, A., Krauss, S., Bradbury, T., Samaraweera, S., Gardner M.G. (2013) Development of microsatellite loci for the riparian tree species Melaleuca argentea (Myrtaceae) using 454 sequencing. Applications in Plant Sciences 1 ( 5 ): 1200401

Tapper, S.-L. Byrne, M., Gardner, M.G. (2013) Isolation and characterisation of ten microsatellite markers for the tetraploid Stypandra glauca R.Br. (Hemerocallidaceae) identified using next generation sequencing Conservation Genetics Resources. 5: 529-531

Breed, M.F., Ottewell, K.M., Gardner, M.G., Marklund, M.H.K., Dormontt, E.E., Lowe, A.J. (2013) Mating patterns and pollinator mobility are the critical traits in forest fragmentation genetics. Heredity 1038/hdy.2013.48

Montanari, S.R., Gardner, M.G., Hobbs, J.P.A., Pratchett, M.S., Bay, L.K., van Herwerden, L. (2013) Isolation and characterization of twenty microsatellite markers for the study of hybridization in butterflyfish of the genus Chaetodon. Conservation Genetics Resources. 5: 783-786

van der Meer, M.H., Horne, J., Gardner, M.G., Hobbs, J.P., Pratchett, M., van Herwerden, L., (2013) Limited contemporary gene flow and high self-replenishment drives peripheral isolation in an endemic coral reef fish. Ecology and Evolution. 3: 1653–1666

Hevroy, T.H., Moody, M.L., Krauss, S.L. Gardner, M.G., (2013) Isolation, via 454 sequencing, characterization and transferability of microsatellites for Grevillea thelemanniana thelemanniana and cross-species amplification in the Grevillea thelemanniana complex (Proteaceae). Conservation Genetics Resources

Bell, K.L., Murphy, D.L. Gardner, M.G. (2013) Isolation, via 454 sequencing, and characterisation of microsatellites for Vachellia farnesiana (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). Applications in Plant Sciences 1(10): 1300035.

Tang, L, Smith-Keune, C., Gardner, M.G., Hardesty B.D. (2013) Development, characterisation and cross-species amplification of 16 novel microsatellite markers for the endangered Black-throated Finch (Poephila cincta) in Australia. Conservation Genetics Resources. 1: 143-146

Burridge, C.P., Brown, W.E., Wadley, J., Nankervis, D., Olivier, L., Hull, C., Barbour, R., Gardner, M.G., Austin, J.J. (2013) Did post-glacial changes in sea-level initiate the evolutionary divergence of a Tasmanian ‘endemic’ raptor from its mainland relative? Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 280: 20132448.

Binks, R.M., Gardner, M.G., Millar, M.A., Byrne, M. (2013) Characterization and cross-amplification of novel microsatellite markers for two Australian sedges, Lepidosperma sp. Mt Caudan and sp. Parker Range (Cyperaceae). Conservation Genetics Resources 10.1007/s12686-013-0087-2

Stingemore, J.A., Nevill, P.G., Gardner, M.G., Krauss, L. (2013) Development of Microsatellite Markers for Two Australian Persoonia (Proteaceae) Species Using Two Different Techniques. Applications in Plant Sciences 1 (10).

Bull, J.K., Sands, C.J., Garrick, R.C., Gardner, M.G., Tait, N.N., Briscoe, D.A, Rowell, D.M, Sunnucks, P. (2013) Environmental complexity and biodiversity: the multi-layered evolutionary history of a log-dwelling velvet worm in montane temperate Australia. PLoS ONE. 10.1371/journal.pone.0084559

Walsh, A.M., Kortschak, R.D., Gardner, M.G., Bertozzi, T., and Adelson, D.L. (2013) BovB: Widespread Horizontal Transfer of Retrotransposons. Proceeding of the National Acadamy of Sciences USA 110: 1012-1016


Turnbull C, Caravan H, Chapman T, Nipperess D, Schwarz MP, Beattie A (2012)  Antifungal activity in thrips soldiers suggests a dual role for this caste.  Biology Letters

Rehan SM, Leys L, Schwarz MP (2012) A mid-Cretaceous origin of sociality in xylocopine bees with only two origins of true worker castes indicates severe barriers to eusociality. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34690.

Dew RM, Tierney SM, Rehan SM, Chenoweth LB & Schwarz MP (2012) Sociality in allodapine bees: a single origin of large colony size suggests a threshold event among 50 million years of evolutionary tinkering. Insectes Sociaux 59: 207-214.

Harradine SL, Gardner MG & Schwarz MP (2012) Kinship in a social bee mediates ovarian differentiation and has implications for reproductive skew theories. Animal Behaviour 84: 611-618.  

Breed, M.F., Marklund M.H.K. Ottewell, K.M., Gardner, M.G. Harris, J.B.C., Lowe, A.J. (2012) Pollen diversity matters: revealing the neglected effect of pollen diversity on fitness in fragmented landscapes. Molecular Ecology 21: 5955 – 5968

Lancaster, M.L., Gardner, M.G., Fitch, A.J., Ansari, T.H., Smyth, A. (2012) A direct biodiversity benefit of saltbush-based farming for the sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa, in southern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 60: 192–198.

Bertozzi T., Sanders K.L., Sistrom M.J., Gardner M.G. (2012) Anonymous nuclear loci in non-model organisms: making the most of high throughput genome surveys. Bioinformatics 28: 1807-1810. I am senior author

Umbers, K.D.L., Jennions, M.D., Gardner, M.G., Keogh, J.S. (2012) Twenty-five new polymorphic microsatellites for the eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Actinopterygii: Poeciliidae), an invasive species in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology. 60, 235-237

von Zum Hof J., Schönrogge K., Cook J.M., Gardner M.G. (2012) Development of microsatellite markers using 454 sequencing for the rare socially parasitic hoverfly Microdon mutabilis. Australian Journal of Zoology 60: 108-110 

Hogan F.E., Weaving, M., Johnson, G., and Gardner G. (2012) Isolation and characterisation, via 454 sequencing, of microsatellites from the tawny frogmouth Podargus strigoides, (Class: Aves, Family: Podargidae), an urban survivor. Australian Journal of Zoology 60: 133-136

Sanders K., Gardner M.G. (2012) Isolation, via 454 sequencing, characterisation and transferability of twelve microsatellite loci for Hydrophis spiralis, the yellow sea snake (Serpentes: Elapidae). Conservation Genetics Resources. 4: 1101-1104

Sanoval-Castillo, J, Gardner, M.G., Beheregaray, L.B. (2012) Rapid isolation of 14 microsatellite markers for Van Diemen’s siphon limpet Siphonaria diemenensis. Conservation Genetics Resources. 4: 845-847

Berthouly-Salazar C., Cassey P., van Vuuren B.J., van Rensburg B.J., Hui C., Gardner M.G., Le Roux J.J. (2012) Development and characterization of 13 new, and cross amplification of 3, polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci in the common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Conservation Genetics Resources. 4: 621-624

Sherman C., Stanley A.M., Keough M.J., Gardner M.G., Macreadie P.I. (2012) Development of twenty-three novel microsatellite markers for the seagrass, Zostera muelleri from Australia. Conservation Genetics Resources. 4: 689-693

Sanoval-Castillo, J, Gardner, M.G., Beheregaray, L.B. (2012). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for the marine black nerite Nerita atramentosa: tools for assessment and design of marine protected areas. Conservation Genetics Resources. 4: 625-627. 

Meglécz E. Nicolas Pech N., Gilles A., Martin J-F, and Gardner M.G. (2012). A shot in the genome: how accurately do shotgun 454 sequences represent a genome? BMC Research Notes 5: 

Sherman C.D.H., Ierodiaconou D., Stanley A.M., Weston K., Gardner M. G., Schultz M.B. (2012) Development of twenty-four novel microsatellite markers for the freshwater crayfish, Geocharax gracilis using next generation sequencing. Conservation Genetics Resources. 4: 555-558

Scoble, J., Lowe. A. J., Gardner G. (2012) Isolation via 454 sequencing, and characterisation of microsatellites for Drymodes brunneopygia, southern scrub-robin (Aves: Petroicidae): a species at risk due to substantial habitat loss and climate change. Conservation Genetics Resources.

van der Meer, M.H., Gardner, M.G., van Herwerden L. (2012) Identification of twenty one microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the endemic butterflyfish Chaetodon tricinctus.  Conservation Genetics Resources. 4, 243–246.

van der Meer, M.H., Gardner, M.G., van Herwerden L. (2012) Identification of seventeen microsatellite markers for conservation genetic studies of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion mccullochiConservation Genetics Resources. 4, 247–250.

Fitch, A.J., Leeworthy, G., Li, X., Bowman, W., Turner, L., Gardner G. (2012) Isolation and characterisation of eighteen microsatellite markers from the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra (Echinodermata: Holothuriidae). Australian Journal of Zoology. 60: 368-371 

Riordan, J., Gardner, M.G. Fitch, A.J., Johnston G. R. (2012) Isolation, via 454 sequencing, and characterisation of microsatellites for Phalacrocorax fuscescens, the black-faced cormorant (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 60: 340-342

Breed M.F., Gardner M.G., Ottewell K.M., Navarro C., Lowe A.J. (2012). Shifts in reproductive assurance strategies and inbreeding costs associated with habitat fragmentation in Central American mahogany. Ecology Letters 15: 444-452.

Gardner, M.G., Godfrey, S. Fenner A., Donnellan S.C., Bull C.M. (2012) Fine scale spatial structuring as an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in the social skink Egernia stokesii. Australian Journal of Zoology 60: 272-277.

Meglécz E., Neve, G., Biffin, E., and Gardner M.G. (2012) Breakdown of Phylogenetic Signal: A Survey of Microsatellite Densities in 454 Shotgun Sequences from 154 Non Model Eukaryote Species. PLoS ONE 7(7)


Schwarz MP, Tierney SM, Rehan SM,  Chenoweth LB and  Cooper SJB (2011) The evolution of eusociality in bees: Workers began by waiting. Biology Letters 7: 277-280

Kayaalp P. Craigie AI & Schwarz MP (2011) Description of a new subgenus of Allodapula (Apidae: Allodapini) based on larval morphology and DNA sequence data. African Entomology 19: 564-571

Chenoweth L & Schwarz MP (2011)Biogeographical origins and diversification of the exoneurine allodapine bees of Australia. Biogeography 38: 1471-1483  

Abbot, P, Abe, J, Alcock, J. et al. (2011) Inclusive Fitness Theory and Eusociality.  Nature 471: E1-E3 ( includes Gardner MG & Schwarz MP amongst the 60 alphabetically listed authors)

Rehan, SM, Richards MH & Schwarz MP (2011) Fitness consequences of ecological constraints and implications for the evolution of sociality in the small carpenter bees. J. Linn. Soc. 103: 57-67

McLeish MJ, Chapman T, Schwarz MP (2011). Gall-inducers take a leap: host-range differences explain speciation opportunity.  J. Entomol.  50: 405-417

Groom, SVC, Schwarz MP (2011) Bees in the South West Pacific: origins, diversity and conservation. Apidologie 42: 759-770  DOI: 1007/s13592-011-0079-8

Hereward, J., Gardner, M.G., Riginos, C., De Barro, P., Lowe, A, Molecular Ecology Resources Primer Development Consortium, (2011) Characterisation of 12 polymorphic microsatellites in the green mirid, Creontiades dilutus Stal (Hemiptera:Miridae). Molecular Ecology 10(6), 1106–1108.

Breed, M. F., Ottewell, K.M., Gardner, M.G. and Lowe, A.J. (2011) Clarifying climate change adaptation responses for scattered trees in modified landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology 48(3), 637–641. 

Smith, A., Gardner, M.G, Bull, C.M., and Driscoll, D. (2011) Primers for novel microsatellite markers in “fire-specialist” lizards (Amphibolurus norrisi, Ctenotus atlas and Nephrurus stellatus) and their performance across multiple populations. Conservation Genetics Resources 3(2), 345-350.

Brown, G.K and Gardner M.G. (2011) Isolation, characterisation and transferability of microsatellites for Paraserianthes lophantha, Cape Wattle (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae): a significant weed worldwide. Muelleria 29(1), 87-92.

Gardner, M.G., Fitch, A.J., Bertozzi T., Lowe, A.J. (2011) Rise of the machines, recommendations for ecologists using next generation sequencing for microsatellite development. Molecular Ecology Resources 11, 1093-1101. 

Miller P., Gardner, M.G., Fitch A., Hutson K. and Mair G., (2011) Genetic population structure of Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola lalandi) in temperate Australasian waters inferred from microsatellite markers. Aquaculture 319, 328–336.


Rehan SM, Chapman T, Craigie A, Richards MH, Cooper SJB , Schwarz MP (2010) Molecular phylogeny of the small carpenter bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Ceratinini) indicates early and rapid global dispersal Phylo. Evol. 

Rehan SM, Richards MH & Schwarz MP (2010) Social polymorphism in the Australian small carpenter bee, Ceratina (Neoceratina) australensis.  Insectes Sociaux 57: 403-412  

Collier, N., Gardner, M.G., Adams, M., McMahon, C.R., Benkendorff, K., and Mackay D. A. (2010) Contemporary habitat loss reduces genetic diversity in a specialist butterfly. Journal of Biogeography 37(10), 1277-1287

Dudaniec, R.Y., Gardner, M. G., and Kleindorfer, S. (2010) Offspring genetic structure reveals mating and nest infestation behaviour of an invasive parasitic fly (Philornis downsi) of Galápagos birds. Biological Invasions 12(3), 581-592.


Eardley, C, Gikungu, M & Schwarz MP (2009) Bee Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: Diversity, Status and Threats.  Apidologie 40: 355-366

Smith JA & Schwarz MP (2009). New species and unexpected diversity of socially parasitic bees in the genus Inquilina. Insect Science 16: 343-350.

Tierney SM & Schwarz MP (2009) Reproductive hierarchies in an African allodapine bee Allodapula dichroa: implications for inferring ancestral forms of sociality. J. Linn. Soc.  97: 520-530

Rehan SM, Richards MH, and Schwarz MP (2009) Evidence of social nesting in Ceratina of Borneo. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 82: 194-209

Guzinski, J., Bull, C.M., Donnellan, S.C., Gardner, M.G. (2009) Molecular genetic data provide support for a model of transmission dynamics in an Australian reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri. Molecular Ecology 18,227 – 234.

Smith A.L., Fenner A.L., Bull C.M., Gardner M.G. (2009) Genotypes and nematode infections in an endangered lizard, Tiliqua adelaidensis. Applied Herpetology 6, 300–305.

Murphy, A.R., Gardner, M.G, Fox S.F. (2009) Isolation of microsatellites via enrichment and a sequence tagged method (STM) in a South American lizard with suspected parental care, Liolaemus leopardinus. Conservation Genetics Resources 1, 13-16.

Myers, S.A. Gardner, M.G, Donnellan, S.C., and Kleindorfer, S. (2009) New Holland honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae) microsatellites: isolation and characterization of 15 novel markers using an enrichment method. Molecular Ecology Resources 9, 1052-1054.

Smith, A.L, Gardner, M.G., Fenner, A., Bull C. M., (2009) Restricted gene flow in the endangered pygmy bluetongue lizard (Tiliqua adelaidensis) in a fragmented agricultural landscape. Wildlife Research 36, 466–478.


Zammit, J, Hogendoorn, K and Schwarz MP (2008) Strong constraints to independent nesting in a facultatively social bee: quantifying the pressure posed by enemies-at-the-nest. Insectes Sociaux.

Tierney, SM, Chenoweth L, Smith JA & Schwarz MP (2008) Phylogenetics of allodapine bees: a review of social evolution, parasitism and biogeography. Apidologie 

Kayaalp, P., and Schwarz, M.P. (2008). Egg size and number is influenced by both environmental and social factors in a facultatively social bee. Australian Journal of Zoology 55, 357–362.  

Chenoweth, L, Fuller, S, Tierney, SM, Park, YC, and Schwarz, MP (2008) Hasinamelissa: a new genus of allodapine bees from Madagascar revealed by DNA sequence data and larval morphology. Systematic Entomology 33:700-710

Smith JA & MP Schwarz (2008) Decisions, decisions, decisions: host colony choices of a social parasite. Ethology 

Dudaniec, R.Y, Gardner, M. G, Donnellan, S. and Kleindorfer, S. (2008) Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galapagos archipelago. BMC Ecology, 8, 13

Gardner, G., Donnellan, S.C., Hutchinson, M.N., Foster R. (2008) Molecular systematics of social skinks: phylogeny and taxonomy of the Egernia group (Reptilia: Scincidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 154, 781-794.

Gardner, M.G., Delphs, A. Smith, R. Dudaniec, J. Sanchez. (2008) Tiliqua rugosa microsatellites: isolation via enrichment and characterisation of loci for multiplex PCR in T. rugosa and the endangered T. adelaidensis. Conservation Genetics. 9, 233–237.

Guzinski, J., Saint, K.M., Gardner, M.G., Donnellan, S.C., Bull, C.M. (2008) Development of microsatellite markers and analysis of their inheritance in the Australian reptile tick, Bothriocroton hydrosauri. Molecular Ecology Resources 8, 443-445.

Dudaniec R.Y., Gardner, M.G. and Kleindorfer, S. (2008) Isolation and characterisation and multiplex PCR of novel microsatellite loci for the avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae). Molecular Ecology Resources 8, 142–144.

Wheaton, L., Donnellan, S.C., Gardner, M.G., Hollis, G. (2008) Isolation of polymorphic tri- and tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci for the highly endangered Baw Baw frog (Philoria frosti) Molecular Ecology Resources 8, 593-595.


Joyce, NC and Schwarz, MP (2007) Sociality and sex allocation in an Australian allodapine bee Braunsapis protuberans. J. Entomol. 46: 121-128

Schwarz MP., Richards, Danforth (2007) Changing paradigms in insect social evolution: new insights from halictine and allodapine bees. Annual Review of Entomology 52: 127-150

Chenoweth, L. & Schwarz, MP. (2007) Social Biology of two Malagasy Halterapis: Evidence that eusociality is plesiomorphic for an ancient allodapine lineage. Entomol. Soc. America 100: 311-319.

Park, YC, J-S Yoo, MP Schwarz, N Murphy & Joo-Pil, K. (2007). Molecular phylogeny of east Asian wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA.  Entomol. Soc. Amer. 100:1-8

Smith, JA, Tierney, SM, Park, YC, Fuller, S and Schwarz, MP (2007) Origins of social parasitism: The importance of divergence ages in phylogenetic studies. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 43:1131-1137

McLeish, MJ, Chapman, TW & Schwarz, MP (2007) Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia. BMC Biology 5(3) 

McLeish, MJ, Crespi, BJ, Chapman, TW & Schwarz, MP (2007) Parallel diversification of Australian gall-thrips on Acacia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 714-725

Stevens MI, Hogendoorn K and Schwarz MP (2007) Evolution of sociality by natural selection on variances in reproductive fitness: evidence from a social bee. BMC Evolutionary Biology.  7:153.  doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-153

Chenoweth LB, SM Tierney, JA Smith, SJB Cooper & MP Schwarz (2007) Social complexity and large colony sizes are not sufficient to explain lack of reversions to solitary living over long time-scales. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:246, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-246

Gardner, M. G., Schönrogge, K., Elmes, G. W., Thomas, J. A. (2007) Increased genetic diversity as a defence against parasites is undermined by social parasites: Microdon mutabilis hoverflies infesting Formica lemani ant colonies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 103-110

Gardner, M.G., Bull, C.M. Godfrey, S., Fenner, A., Murray, K., Donnellan, C. (2007) Consistent social structuring within aggregations of the Australian lizard, Egernia stokesii across seven disconnected rocky outcrops. Journal of Ethology 25(3): 263-270

Wells, J.A., Gardner M.G., and Lowe A.J. (2007) Development and characterisation of microsatellite markers for Cryptocarya mackinnoniana (Lauraceae). Molecular Ecology Notes. 7(6): 981-983

Wheaton L., Donnellan, S.C., De Vries, M.C., Gardner, M.G. and Gillanders, B.M. (2007) Isolation of additional polymorphic tri- and tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci for the giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama). Molecular Ecology Notes 7(5): 893-895


Schwarz, M.P., S. M. Tierney and T. W. Chapman (2006) Phylogenetic analyses of life history traits in allodapine bees and social evolution. 147-155. In Life Cycles of Social Insects: Behaviour, Ecology and Evolution.  Ed. V. E. Kipyatkov.  St. Petersburg University Press, St. Petersburg. ISBN 5-288-04008-7

Langer, P, Hogendoorn, K, Schwarz, MP, and Keller, L. (2006) Reproductive skew in the allodapine bee Exoneura robusta. Animal Behaviour 71: 193-201

Schwarz, MP, Fuller, S, Tierney, SM, and Cooper, SJB (2006) Molecular phylogenetics of the exoneurine allodapine bees reveal an ancient and puzzling dispersal from Africa to Australia. Systematic Biology 55: 31-45

Joyce, NC and Schwarz MP (2006) Sociality in the Australian allodapine bee Brevineura elongata: small colony sizes despite large benefits to group living. Insect Behaviour. 19: 45-61

Smith, J. A. and M. P. Schwarz (2006) Sociality in a Malagasy allodapine bee, Macrogalea antanosy, and the impacts of the facultative social parasite, Macrogalea maizina. Insectes Sociaux 53: 101-107

Smith J. & Schwarz, MP. (2006) Strategic exploitation in a socially parasitic bee: the benefit of waiting. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 60: 108-115

Park, YC, Kitade, O., Schwarz, MP, Kim, JP, Kim, W. (2006) Intraspecific molecular phylogeny, genetic variation and phylogeography of Reticulitermes speratus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Molecules and Cells  21:89-103

Smith JA , Schwarz MP and Chapman TC (2006) Sociality within the African bee genus Macrogalea: insights from two Malagasy species. African Entomology 14:147-152

Aenmey, T., Tierney, S.M., Pillay, N., & Schwarz M.P. (2006) Nesting biology of an African allodapine bee Braunsapis vitrea: female biased sex allocation in the absence of worker-like behavioural castes. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 18: 205-220

Chapman, TW, Francis-Geyer, KL, & Schwarz, MP (2006) The impact of kleptoparasitic invasions on the evolution of gall-size in the Australian Acacia.  Insect Science 13: 391-400

Thompson, S. and Schwarz, MP (2006). Cooperative nesting and complex female biased sex allocation in a tropical allodapine bee. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 355-364

G. Chapple, A.J. Stow, D. O’Connor, S. Fuller, M.G. Gardner (2006) Cross-species amplification of DNA microsatellite loci in an Australian lineage of social lizards (Scincidae, genus Egernia).  Herpetological Review 37: 177-180.

Godfrey S. S., Bull C. M., Murray K., G. Gardner (2006) Transmission mode and distribution of parasites among groups of the social lizard Egernia stokesii. Parasitology Research 99: 123-130.

Godfrey, S., Bull, C.M., Gardner, M.G., (2006) Associations between blood parasite infection and a microsatellite DNA allele in an Australian scincid lizard (Egernia stokesii). Parasitology Research 100: 107-109.

Schönrogge, K., Gardner, M. G., Elmes, G. W., Thomas, J. A. (2006) Host propagation permits extreme local adaptation in a social parasite of ants. Ecology Letters 9: 1032-1040

For publications from previous years please see Mike Schwarz’s and Mike Gardner’s Google Scholar profiles.